the Author

WAR: Spoiler thread

Posted in writing.

This is the thread for discus­sion of War by people who have a) already read it and want to talk about it or b) don’t care about being spoiled.

I found parts of the discus­sion thread to First­born a bit diffi­cult — it’s been a while since I’ve had spoiler thread posts on this web-site, and I stayed out of book discus­sion posts on the forum, when they were active. But I have now figured out how to filter things, and I will remain bliss­fully igno­rant while strug­gling with the current books, one of which is giving me minor ulcers, I swear.


37 Responses to WAR: Spoiler thread

  1. Anna Wick says:

    I haven’t read it yet, hope­fully this coming weekend I’ll hermit at home and read. I“m very exited. Thanks for your hard work to build worlds for us. Don’t let the current book get you down. We know you will figure out a solution.

  2. Dawn Luna says:

    I really liked the book! Read it so fast, I’m going to have to re-read it again. I like how she tied all the different threads together. I do still ha few ques­tions though. 😊 Looking forward to your next book!

  3. Julianne Single says:

    I bought the book and am desper­ately hoping for some time to get to read it but well adulting is hard. Me wanna quit work read books. But no, respon­si­bility yadda yadda. Anyway unlike the rest of you suckers (just kidding) waiting years for first­born I discov­ered the series this past year and only had to wait mere months for what I’m sure is going to be a stun­ning conclu­sion if only I could forget all the other boring things like work or eating or sleeping and take time to read. Next time Michelle I’m plan­ning my beach vaca­tion with the book release haha.

  4. Ha Nguyen says:

    So, I finished it last night. I was trying to go slow and savor, but, well, I have no self-control where your books are concerned.

    Anyway, I just have to say, OMG. Teller! Jay! I was so hoping that we would get tidbits about Jay and her den during The Burning Crown saga, but that hope is now thrown out the window.

    I wonder if Andrei will wind up even­tu­ally in the den. Prob­ably not, though. I’m thinking that defi­nitely the grand­chil­dren love Andrei so he’ll prob­ably stay with the family even after Hectore dies, Although, it may be nice if he visits the Terafin occasionally.

  5. Jeff Jensen says:

    I loved how it wrapped up so many different pieces, and left just a few open for carry us into the next series. And I loved the cats, and their big scene in the fight!

  6. Claire De Trafford says:

    I really loved this one. The best so far i think. I’m not spoiling it but the ending was perfect, partic­u­larly because it wasn’t quite how I pictured it. A good resting place before the Burning Crown.

  7. Mary Allen says:

    I just finished and love the book. If gives me hope that there is a lot more left for you to write about as we don’t know about Anya, Kiriel, Stephen’s son and Auralis to name just a few. Plus I missed Lord Isladar. I am glad I have the Cast novels to look forward to. Plus I can reread every­thing again. Thanks again for hours of pleasure.

  8. Dan Pierson says:

    I finished it last week and loved it. Jewel’s final status seemed appro­priate and rather inevitable. The cat’s contri­bu­tion to her city was unex­pected and … inter­esting … hope we will hear more about it later.

    On the side, I just posted an Amazon review that tries to clear up some of the confu­sion about the various arcs. Hope I didn’t get things too wrong.

  9. Amy Nelson says:

    I loved the book and the series and to second the above comment about char­ac­ters we don’t know about — Avandar, Adam, Calliastra, Celle­rient.… I’m obvi­ously behind because refer­ences to “Burning Crown” are leaving me scratching my head. Next book in the Sun Sword series?

  10. Claire De Trafford says:

    Ok so spoiler discus­sion time.

    Will Jay and the den play much of an active role in the final Burning Crown series? The final battle will prob­ably be near the city so we will see them defending the walls along with Calliastra etc. I think maybe Angel or Arann still have some plot threads dangling. Jarvon Michelle has said will be impor­tant in the next set of books. The tiara and bracelet that Gilafas made still need to find their correct owner. Adam needs to return back to Arcosa. Kallan­dras still has some­thing to do.

    I’ve just reread the Hunt­brother short story and we get the name of the gardener there which I’ve sort of forgotten already but some­thing like Caralonne, who surely must be Meralon­ne’s herald. We also see Stephen of Maubreche / Oath­binder and Nenyane ( a very Arthurian name) who will have a role to come.

    Where is Mooralas’s sword? I don’t think it can be the sun sword although only certain people can hold that; surely the kin would have recog­nised it? I was thinking it might be either Angel or Arann’s swords but again ditto. So Meralonne will need to find both it and the person to wield it.

    Looking forward to the final arc.

  11. Wendy Sahyoun says:

    I cried so hard for Carver, and I am so happy you managed to save him. I am very happy and content that this arc has been wrapped up, and am looking forward to the next arc.

  12. Richard says:

    I listened to the audio book on a long drive across country and when finished listened to the last two chap­ters and epilogue three more times. :)

    I did not see the solu­tion to Vian­daran’s wish, I always assumed it would come through aNeiamas or Bread­onair. And then, the choice he makes when presented with the wish of his heart!!??! Holy smokes!

    There’s an error early in the book where Jewel says she’s only met Darranatos once before but she’s actu­ally met him twice, in Battle and again in Oracle.

    I thought once you lost a shield/sword, they were gone for good? Darranatos lost his sword in Battle but has it again in Oracle. Early in War, Darranatos broke Shian­ne’s shield but she has it again by the end of the book? Look at Illara­phaniel’s shield or Ishavriel’s.

    I think, given the last two books, that what Jewel became was inevitable. But, she can’t travel now. But, they do now have a secure base of oper­a­tions that encom­passes the mortal plane as well as the High Wilderness.

    I am not quite sure why, in the end, the Summer Queen did what she did to the Sleepers. She spoke of hope and how she once had it, but that it was now gone. Why? Because the sword was lost? Then she does what she does and 10 seconds later, oh, that sword you thought was lost, its been found. Was that a mistake by the Oracle? Evayne? Why not speak up sooner? Or, was it inten­tional? Some­thing that had to happen?

    And lastly, still lots of threads to tie up in Burning Crown! Yay! All done while still tying up the loose ends related to House War but leaving meat on the bone for the next books.

  13. Richard says:

    After I posted my above comment, I went back and re-read Warlord. 

    You have chosen victory over love and this is what it will buy you; eter­nity. You will come to curse it, for you will hold nothing that you value until the day you choose another man’s cause over your own. As you have conquered, so must you serve.”

    Vian­daran made the choice he did. But I feel as if his first true day of service will be…tomorrow. Because, going forward, he will find things to value.

  14. Darbie says:

    At page 490 on my nook I started crying the appear­ance of the Kalakar and Berrilya. I have never tried to read a book so fast and force myself to stay awake to read your words. THANKYOU it was many twists and turns many VERY unan­tic­i­pated but on whole I am soo SATISFIED, I now have a new count down to 2020 and the first book of the burning crown. Please continue to write but maybe faster ps I did read the ending first😃

  15. Paula Lieberman says:

    I’m wondering about Meralon­ne’s future shield – was his orig­inal shield made by Anduvin [who along with Isladar wasn’t in War, Darrantos, however, who destroyed Meralonne/Illaraphaniel’s shield, was… and back to the Hells he went, dimin­ished­mightily?], and didn’t Anduvin promise to make Meralonne a new ne in a previous book? 

    I was surprised at the absorp­tion of the former Sleepers by Ariane – was it always the concept that Ariane had created all of the Arianni?

    Cessaly, she’s returned to Fabril’s Reach in Aver­alaan, the greatest Artisan, surpassing Fabril himself, and the Guild­master and the rest of the Guild serve her.…

    Jewel has become Sen. Her bind­ings include the immortal-with-small-caveats Avandar/Viandaran,whose death the Oracle has said will come with Jewel’s death, Rath, Angel, her Den, Celle­riant, Brigi­itte, Haval, Jarven, House Terafin, sundry Arianni, and the new 36 Sleepers turned immortal, bound to Aver­alaan to beyond Jewel’s death, for so long as Aver­alaan and they should survive.

    The Terafin spirit departed the Terafin grounds for Mandaros’ Halls when Jewel became The Terafin, leaving Jewel the Guardian of the House – and then the entire city. Now there is cast of dozens, hundreds, directly supporting her, for at least the dura­tion of the war against Allaskar, and for most, beyond that… what will happen to those bonds at Jewel’s death?

    FInch is Regent – Jewel is The Terafin, but constrained, Finch is Regent, and not Sen with other real­i­ties entrap­ping her. 

    Jewel is Sen, but unlike the Sen of the old long-ago Cities of Man, she is not bound,in love or anything else, to Allasakar. She has the greatest of Arti­sans for an anchor or having created Works helping anchor Jewel. Jewel has the Warlord as domicis, and he put a binding on her that were the marks of a wife of a man of power. Jewel has Rath, Angel, Kiriel, Calliastra, the Trees, the three Elders incar­natedas large winged cats.…

    Where is Magret [spelling] of the Voyani, and the other last Voyani Matri­archs? Their ancestry was the Sen of the Cities of Man, but are they or are they not Sen?The Sen did not rule, men who were Tors rules, oops, I left out the Winter King among those bound to Jewel.… The Winter King had been a Tor, so too had been Viandaran/Avandar – and both men failed their Cities for other purposes, the WInter King to be WInter King to Arian(n) the Winter Queen, Vian­daran betrayed his City to Allasakar for the(broken…) promise of Allasakar granting him death. Adam is Tor or to be Tor… a boy turning to man who is healer, who returned from death or near death…

    Jewel is not ‑quite- immortal.… “The Sen did not die of old age”

    Duvari appeared in passing, and-where- did Haval find him and how did Haval train him?

    How old and fragile is Sigurn? She wears a ring created by or for Meralonne/Illaraphaniel,what are the prop­er­ties of it

    The warrior-mages had self-actu­al­ized, found/created weapons from their spirits, driven/forced/trained/elicted/led by Meralonne to do so, and fought the forces of the Sleepers.

    Life goes on for the survivors of the waking of the Sleepers and the recon­fig­u­ra­tion of the rock and stone and geom­etry of Aver­alaan. The spir­i­tual and temporal rulers of the city – the Kings, the Queens, the Heirs, the Princess Royal, the chil­dren of the gods of the state religion,played little direct role in War, their roles were mostly symbolic and bulwarking the popu­la­tion to endure and survive and to ‑hope=

  16. Richard says:

    Darranatos wasn’t the one who broke Illara­phaniel’s shield. It was someone else, in the fight in the under city. Anduvin did promise, and the Eldest, the tree, gifted Illara­phaniel with part of a tree branch that was to be used in its making. Of course, Anduvin said he’d make the shield if he could but be there in the dawn of the Summer Queen. But, he was not.

    Darranatos did break Shan­di­al­laran’s shield; but, she had it back for the fight over the city?

    I do agree that Jewel will be a Sen like no other, with allies they never had, nor could have had. 

    I think I would take Anak­ton’s take on them! “We exist now in inter­esting times, and I, for one, antic­i­pate them.”

  17. Peter Moore says:

    I’ve only read War once, plan­ning on a re-read fairly soon. I really enjoyed the book, however I have one thing that is both­ering me. What’s with Ariel? She had was a semi-minor char­acter in Riven Shield but has largely disap­peared since. She was barely mentioned at all in War, I don’t remember her even being “on stage” in the story at all. I hope she re-appears in the Burning Crown series but for now my opinion is that her char­acter has been wasted.

  18. Richard says:

    I doubt Ariel will ever show up much. She was mentioned fairly often in Skir­mish and Battle but exited stage left after. Islader said she was ordi­nary in every way, not talent born, not destined for anything. Not every char­acter needs to be promi­nent. Even Michelle has stated that when she first created Jewel in The Hunt­brother duology, that Jewel was never meant to be a major character.

  19. Tchula says:

    @Paula I glanced through Hunter’s Death and on p.570 the Duke of the Hells who shat­tered Meralon­ne’s shield is named: Karathis. So Darranatos is another, different Duke.

    It would not surprise me at all to see Anduvin and Meralonne meet again now that the Seasons have changed. Perhaps Anduvin will use the branch from the Eldest to fabri­cate a new shield?

    I thought it was cool that the Arianni go back to become one with Arianne when they die. Until Shan­dal­liaran was intro­duced, I had seri­ously wondered why there seemed to be no female Arianni in the Hunt.

    It’s fasci­nating to me that the Arianni who became Allasiani seem to encom­pass Arian­ne’s desire (love?) for Allasakar. Were she and Allasakar lovers at some point and he betrayed her? We know they contested for the same dominion, but I’d never consid­ered them in a romantic light before, since they’ve always been so adver­sarial since the start of the series. Interesting.

    I wonder what this will mean for char­ac­ters like Isladar and Ishavriel at the End of Days? It’s been made clear that Darranatos could not return to Arianne. If Allasakar is destroyed, the Names he held will vanish with him, I’d assume. Unless Kiriel can hold them? Since she’s shown she can heal the “dead” as she did with her “dog”, I wonder what that will mean for the Kialli?

    I don’t believe Margret is Sen. Elena had more of the seer’s gift than she. I don’t know the extent of any of the other Matri­arch’s gifts, although Yollana was clearly the most powerful of them. But even she didn’t seem to have the power to alter the land­scape just by dreaming. Maybe it’s impos­sible to become fully Sen without taking the Oracle’s Test, I don’t know. But Jewel was making changes in Terafin and Stone Deep­ings and the other Deep­ings long before she took the Test so who knows?

    When it is pointed out that Sen did not die of old age, I think the impli­ca­tion there is that they all go mad and destroy them­selves or allow them­selves to be destroyed. The mad Sen Adoll of Arkosa (the one who had many sister care­takers who kept dying) died in such a way, it’s implied.

    As for Sigurne’s ring, I believe it is possibly a “piece” of Meralonne, made to func­tion much the same way Arian­ne’s hair func­tions in the ring Gilafas made for Jewel. It marks Sigurne as “his”. I believe he worried he might destroy her acci­den­tally if he forgot himself and so he gave it to her to remind himself he cared about her. He prob­ably also hoped it might stay his brothers’ hands should they encounter her on the field.

    @Claire I have some suspi­cions about where Moore­las’s sword resides. In the old yahoo group one of the members mentioned he thought Nenyane was the sword. Sort of a “living weapon”, if you will. I think that would be totally awesome if it’s true!

  20. Peter Moore says:

    @ Tchula. I remember reading that also about Nenyane being the embod­i­ment of Moorelas’ sword. I agree with you that it would be super cool
    @ Richard: The thing is Ariel didn’t “exit stage left” she just kind of dwin­dled away. I would have been fine with her “exiting stage left”. But she just lingered on, with less and less words until she just faded away. My point is that if that is going to be her fate, MW should have killed her off earlier or left her in the Dominion when Jewel, Avandar & Co returned to Terafin. As it is every­thing related to her is completely imma­te­rial in Skir­mish and Battle. Of course if she does have a part to play in Burning Crown then I will stand corrected. Given the frenetic pace tempo­rally, between the prologue of Skir­mish (27 of Corvil, 427 AA) and the epilogue of War (9th of Lattan 428 AA) Only 5.25 months have passed. Unless our Michelle slows things down a bit, Ariel will still be a child throughout all of the Burning Crown arc.

  21. Richard says:

    I think that’s the point though of Ariel. She’s meant to stand in for all the ordi­nary, non-magical, non-immor­tals of the city. They are not central to the story other than Jewel cares about them, as she did about the child in the alley. She is the face of those ordi­nary people. As such, she will come in and out of focus given other events. But she will never be promi­nent and killing her is pointless.

  22. Paula Lieberman says:

    It’s fasci­nating to me that the Arianni who became Allasiani seem to encom­pass Arianne’s desire (love?) for Allasakar. Were she and Allasakar lovers at some point and he betrayed her? We know they contested for the same dominion, but I’d never consid­ered them in a romantic light before, since they’ve always been so adver­sarial since the start of the series. Interesting.”


    In one of the Sun Sword books one of the gods called Meralonne “little brother.” 

    A number of char­ac­ters promi­nent in earlier books who didn’t appear in War – none of the entrants or aspi­rants (that I recall) to the contest for cham­pion in Aver­alaan [there partic­u­larly was a boy who aspired to be a contes­tant when he was older], Devon a’Ter­afin “Patris of the fence sitters” Jewel Markess had scorn­fully called him, with his divided respon­si­bil­i­ties to House Terafin and the Astari, no Anya [dewn in the South], none other­wise of the humans who were subjects of Allasakar, the former Black Osprey were all down South as the guard of Valadan, Kiriel was in the South, retired Gabriel was not present.… The Kalakar and the Berrilya [spelling] were seen but not really inter­acted with on the page by the readers, as the Kings’ mili­tary leaders tasked with lead­er­ship of Aver­alaan’s armies, the Waylen [spelling] was present as one of the Bards, Jewel and her Regent Finch of course were present as heading House Terafin, but the other six of the Ten were ISTR not present in the book. 

    Some­thing I forgot to mention earlier, was “what if any relevance/impact is there regarding Callilastra and Viandaran/Avandar having been been sex part­ners at least once?” It was mentioned in the Sun Sword series explic­itly that he was the only person to have ever lived through the expe­ri­ence, as opposed to everyone else having died.

  23. Peter Moore says:

    I’ve started my re-read and I won’t comment again until I’ve finished it, but one star­tling fact (well, star­tling to me anyway) hit me between the eyes. The whole of the book is encom­passed in 3 days! (well tech­ni­cally 4 as the book ends some­what after midnight on the 9th of Lattan) But chapter one starts on the 6th of Lattan and all of the inter­vening pages are about the 6th 7th and 8th of Lattan. I thought it was at least a week.
    Regarding Ariel. She is mentioned 7 times in the book according to the “find” func­tion. She doesn’t speak, she is last mentioned being in the company of Daine in the forest about 125 pages from the end. I wonder if she made the tran­si­tion to the new Terafin manse on the main­land? Given her impor­tance in Riven Shield and the fact that both Isladar and Shadow have formed attach­ments to her, I think she might have a part to play later. I don’t agree with Richard above that she’s only a symbolic face of the “ordi­nary people”.

  24. Kitsum Katalan says:

    For me the most intriguing ques­tion – of all the intriguing ques­tions Michelle throws out for us to ponder – is the explicit connec­tion made between the world of Aver­alaan and the world of Elantra. Besides the one explicit link, which I won’t expli­cate (and ruin every­one’s fun who hasn’t already noted it), there are other, more subtle links. The ques­tion is: in which direc­tion does time’s arrow flow? Or, is time itself a more devious char­acter (as Michelle often implies) than we are accus­tomed to thinking? I am hoping she will continue to play with the links between the two worlds, in both series.

  25. Neesah says:

    Hello, I am new in the forum/blog but I have been following Michelle’s books religiously.

    I just want to ask Michelle or any other fans, so when the different people or immor­tals look at the foun­tain in the castle, espe­cially when it seems like they look up and up, are they seeing jewel as she became Sen standing on the wall in aver­laan? I have been wondering what they have been seeing. Even Teller I think sees the same as the other immortals.

  26. Tracy says:

    Michelle is my absolute favorite author but I have strug­gled with the pacing of the last couple of books. The end of War was fantastic and really gripped me but the begin­ning of the book until she met the Queen was a struggle for me. I also was pretty disap­pointed in how the sleepers arc ended. We have spent so much time on those char­ac­ters that the payoff didn’t seem worth the effort. Also I don’t really under­stand why Hannerle wasn’t one of them at the end. Seemed like a bit of a cheat imho.

  27. Paula Lieberman says:

    Connec­tion between Elantra and the world the Essaylien Empire is in? I’ve missed in completely, and if Ia haven’t noticed it now/yet, I am not going to without someone actu­ally pointing it out to me! So, the post saying “I’m not going to tell you” is MASSIVELY irri­tating to me, can’t there be at least a pointer or some­thing, if not actual deno­ta­tion with suff­i­cent space before and after noting *spoiler* *spoiler* *spoiler* for doing skip­ping over??!

  28. Kitsum Katalan says:

    Sorry! it was not my intent to irri­tate anyone which is why I was not more explicit. * spoiler*

    The connec­tion is the name of the all impor­tant trees in the Essalieyan world, and Kaylin’s True Name. Also, it seems to me that the Arianni and the Barrani are just too similar to be a coin­ci­dence.… Not with Michelle’s mind behind them both! In the Elantra series Kaylin discovers and rescues trav­ellers between worlds, and the Keeper says that humans (and others) came from different worlds. So it is entirely possible that some humans from the Essalieyan world came at some point to the world of Elantra, and along with them, the potent magic that is the trees…which then came to Kaylin. Or vice versa. Which would make Kaylin somehow embodied in the trees of Aver­alaan… Another possi­bility is that there is no cause and effect between these two worlds, but both are influ­enced by the bene­fi­cial magic that is in both Kaylin and the trees…and that is the reason for the simi­larity in the names: some­thing outside of both worlds, that is sentient and works to promote sentience.
    I’m very glad you commented, and I hope you will not be irri­tated that I have not named Kaylin’s true name and the trees’ name! because that would irri­tate other people, I’m sure.

  29. Gerri Lynn Baxter says:

    I have three ques­tions going into the next series: 

    Who gets the ring of earth?
    Who gets the ring of water?
    Who has the god killer sword?

    Waiting is such a thing…

  30. Thunderchild says:

    I’m sorry but there is no connec­tion between the sagara novels and the west novels aside from the author. I appre­ciate the reach but the link is not there.

  31. Paula Lieberman says:

    Who has the god killer sword?”

    1. Cynthia of Maubreche’s son
    2. The boy in the Sun Sword series who got involved watching/trying to watch the compe­ti­tion that Valedan ceded winning for high purposes. 

    It’s not going to be Kiriel, she has her own sword.…
    The Twin Kings have their own weapons, reforged by the Artisan Fabril’s Reach was created for.

  32. Scott says:

    So, the prophesy is that the four princes will ride again to kill the god of the hells (presum­ably in the next arc). How will that happen when the White Lady has reab­sorbed three of the four?

  33. Hari Rajagopalan says:

    I have found this series so fasci­nating that I read the latest book and then go back read all the books and novellas in a time­line fashion starting with the weapon. 

    I hope after the burning crown that we will have a series from the time when gods walked the land with the shining city and the Sens and the Gods battling Allasakar. Ever since I read the Sill­mar­illon as a child, I have always felt the need for a history of these huge wonderful worlds created. 

    For exam­ples the back­ground on the First Born in this series was amazing. I would like to know more about the Dark Lady of the Kovaschii. Initially I thought she was Arianne but I don’t think she is anymore.

  34. Hari Rajagopalan says:

    Correc­tion the Dark Lady cannot be Arianne who is first born. The Dark Lady is a god. In Hunters Death she says “I have no quarrel with my brother” when speaking of Allasakar. So she must be one of the gods.

  35. Tchula says:

    Actu­ally, Hari, Arianne is also a god, like the Oracle, even though they are referred to as First Born. This just means they are the chil­dren of the orig­inal gods (Mystery, the Mother, and possibly Allasakar is one of the orig­inal gods as well, although he is not one of their parents). Arianne was born of the Mother and Mystery and she agreed to cleave to the Hidden Ways, along with Coralonne and Calliastra and others who were born of this plane, rather than going to the Beyond when Mystery forged the Compact.

    In one of the early books, Arianne scoffs at the “neutered gods” of the current society (the ones in the Beyond), implying that she holds more power than gods such as Wisdom, Justice, etc. These “newer” gods prob­ably had parents descended from the orig­inal three, but are not as powerful. I think of someone like Calliastra, whose parents were Allasakar and the goddess of Love (who was not one of the main 3) there­fore, Calliastra is not as powerful as Arianne.

    I can’t remember which book it was – maybe Sea of Sorrows? – but Arianne even says some­thing regarding the “modern” gods to Jewel to the effect of, “They are not GODS, meaning they are weak­ened forms compared to Allasakar, Mystery, and even her own power.”

    I think of the Dark Lady as a god, but we really don’t know anything of her parentage. I’m not even 100% certain whether she’s in the Beyond, meeting with the Kovaschaii in the Between at their deaths, or if she’s in the Hidden Ways and they have a means of meeting with her there when they summon her. If I had to guess at her parentage, I’d say maybe Allasakar and Arianne, although this is total spec­u­la­tion on my part, so take it with a grain of salt. Could be Allasakar and the Mother also, who knows? ;-)

  36. Lisette says:

    I specif­i­cally asked Michelle about that bit of coin­ci­dence. And that’s all it is — coincidence.

  37. Kitsum Katalan says:

    I’m wondering if the last comment refers to my remark last year that Kaylin’s True Name, Ellar­iayn (p, 426 Court­light) is almost the same as the name of the famous King’s Trees mentioned throughout the House Wars series, which are prop­erly called Ellar­i­an­natte (specif­i­cally p. 492 of War, besides many other mentions.)
    Prob­ably no one is reading this thread anymore! I came back after a long absence in hopes of finding some discus­sion of this intriguing bit of cross pollination.

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